Usage Examples

To illustrate how Trigger works, here are some basic examples of leveraging the API.

For these examples to work you must have already installed and configured Trigger, so if you haven’t already please do that first!

Simple Examples

Working with metadata

Get a count of all your devices:

>>> from trigger.netdevices import NetDevices
>>> nd = NetDevices()
>>> len(nd)

(Whoa! That’s a lot!) Let’s look up a device.

>>> dev = nd.find('edge1-abc')
>>> dev.vendor, dev.deviceType
(<Vendor: Juniper>, 'ROUTER')
>>> dev.has_ssh()

Get an interactive shell

Since this device has SSH, let’s connect to it:

>>> dev = nd.find('edge1-abc')
>>> dev.connect()
Connecting to  Use ^X to exit.

Fetching credentials from /home/jathan/.tacacsrc
--- JUNOS 10.2S6.3 built 2011-01-22 20:06:27 UTC

Work with access-lists

Let’s start with a simple Cisco ACL:

>>> from trigger.acl import parse
>>> aclobj = parse('access-list 123 permit tcp any host eq 80')
>>> aclobj.terms
[<Term: None>]

And convert it to Juniper format:

>>> aclobj.name_terms()  # Juniper policy terms must have names
>>> aclobj.terms
[<Term: T1>]
>>> print '\n'.join(aclobj.output(format='junos'))
filter 123 {
    term T1 {
        from {
            destination-address {
            protocol tcp;
            destination-port 80;
        then {

Cache your login credentials

Trigger will encrypt and store your credentials in a file called .tacacsrc in your home directory. We already had them cached in the previous examples, so I removed it and then:

>>> from trigger.tacacsrc import Tacacsrc
>>> tcrc = Tacacsrc()
/home/jathan/.tacacsrc not found, generating a new one!

Updating credentials for device/realm 'tacacsrc'
Username: jathan
Password (again):
>>> tcrc.creds['aol']
Credentials(username='jathan', password='boguspassword', realm='tacacsrc')

Passwords can be cached by realm. By default this realm is 'aol', but you can change that in the settings. Your credentials are encrypted and decrypted using a shared key. A more secure experimental GPG-encrypted method is in the works.

Login to a device using the gong script

Trigger includes a simple tool for end-users to connect to devices called gong:

$ gong foo1-cisco
Connecting to  Use ^X to exit.

Fetching credentials from /home/jathan/.tacacsrc
foo1-cisco#show clock
20:52:05.777 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012

Partial hostnames are supported, too:

$ gong foo1
2 possible matches found for 'foo1':
[ 1]
[ 2]
[ 0] Exit

Enter a device number: 2
Connecting to  Use ^X to exit.

Fetching credentials from /home/jathan/.tacacsrc

Slightly Advanced Examples

Execute commands asynchronously using Twisted

This is a little more advanced… so we saved it for last.

Trigger uses Twisted, which is a callback-based event loop. Wherever possible Twisted’s implementation details are abstracted away, but the power is there for those who choose to wield it. Here’s a super simplified example of how this might be accomplished:

from trigger.netdevices import NetDevices
from twisted.internet import reactor

nd = NetDevices()
dev = nd.find('foo1-abc')

def print_result(data):
    """Display results from a command"""
    print 'Result:', data

def stop_reactor(data):
    """Stop the event loop"""
    print 'Stopping reactor'
    if reactor.running:

# Create an event chain that will execute a given list of commands on this
# device
async = dev.execute(['show clock'])

# When we get results from the commands executed, call this

# Once we're out of commands, or we an encounter an error, call this

# Start the event loop

Which outputs:

Result: ['21:27:46.435 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012\n']
Stopping reactor

Observe, however, that this only communicated with a single device.

Execute commands asynchronously using the Commando API

Commando tries to hide Twisted’s implementation details so you don’t have to deal with callbacks, while also implementing a worker pool so that you may easily communicate with multiple devices in parallel.

This is a base class that is intended to be extended to perform the operations you desire. Here is a basic example of how we might perform the same example above using Commando instead, but also communicating with a second device in parallel:

from trigger.cmds import Commando

class ShowClock(Commando):
    """Execute 'show clock' on a list of Cisco devices."""
    vendors = ['cisco']
    commands = ['show clock']

if __name__ == '__main__':
    device_list = ['', '']
    showclock = ShowClock(devices=device_list) # Commando exposes this to start the event loop

    print '\nResults:'
    print showclock.results

Which outputs:

Sending ['show clock'] to
Sending ['show clock'] to
Received ['21:56:44.701 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012\n'] from
Received ['21:56:44.704 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012\n'] from

    '': {
        'show clock': '21:56:44.704 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012\n'
    '': {
        'show clock': '21:56:44.701 UTC Sat Jun 23 2012\n'

Get structured data back using the Commando API

Commando will attempt to parse the raw command output into a nested dict. The results from each worker are parsed through the TextFSM templating engine, if a matching template file exists within the TEXTFSM_TEMPLATE_DIR directory.

For this to work you must have an attribute on your netdevices model that specifies the network operating system, e.g. IOS, NX-OS or JUNOS. This will be used to correlate the right template for a given device based on the naming convention used by the TextFSM templates.

NetDevice Object:

    "adminStatus": "PRODUCTION",
    "enablePW": "cisco",
    "OOBTerminalServerTCPPort": "5005",
    "assetID": "0000012345",
    "OOBTerminalServerNodeName": "ts1",
    "onCallEmail": "",
    "onCallID": "17",
    "OOBTerminalServerFQDN": "",
    "owner": "12345678 - Network Engineering",
    "OOBTerminalServerPort": "5",
    "onCallName": "Data Center",
    "nodeName": "",
    "budgetCode": "1234578",
    "budgetName": "Data Center",
    "operationStatus": "MONITORED",
    "deviceType": "ROUTER",
    "lastUpdate": "2010-07-19 19:56:32.0",
    "authMethod": "tacacs",
    "projectName": "Test Lab",
    "barcode": "0101010101",
    "site": "LAB",
    "loginPW": "cisco",
    "lifecycleStatus": "INSTALLED",
    "manufacturer": "CISCO",
    "operatingSystem": "IOS",
    "layer3": "1",
    "layer2": "1",
    "room": "CR10",
    "layer4": "1",
    "serialNumber": "987654321",
    "owningTeam": "Data Center",
    "coordinate": "16ZZ",
    "model": "M40-B-AC",
    "OOBTerminalServerConnector": "C"

Template Naming Convention:


Template Directory Structure:

$ tree vendor
└── ntc_templates
    ├── cisco_ios_show_clock.template
    ├── cisco_ios_show_inventory.template
    ├── cisco_ios_show_ip_int_brief.template
    ├── cisco_ios_show_version.template
    ├── cisco_nxos_show_clock.template
    ├── cisco_nxos_show_inventory.template
    ├── cisco_nxos_show_version.template

TextFSM Commando Implementation:

import json
from trigger.cmds import Commando

class ShowMeTheMoney(Commando):
    """Execute the following on a list of Cisco devices:
        'show clock'
        'show version'
        'show ip int brief'
        'show inventory'
        'show run | in cisco'
    vendors = ['cisco']
    commands = [
        'show clock',
        'show version',
        'show ip int brief',
        'show inventory',
        'show run | in cisco'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    device_list = [''']
    showstuff = ShowMeTheMoney(devices=device_list) # Commando exposes this to start the event loop

    print '\nUnparsed Results:\n'
    json.dumps(showstuff.results, indent=4)

    print '\nParsed Results:\n'
    json.dumps(showstuff.parsed_results, indent=4)

Which outputs:

Unparsed Results:

    "r1.demo.local": {
        "show inventory": "NAME: \"Chassis\", DESCR: \"Cisco CSR1000V Chassis\"\r\nPID: CSR1000V          , VID: V00, SN: 9G0T83AE5II\r\n\r\nNAME: \"module R0\", DESCR: \"Cisco CSR1000V Route Processor\"\r\nPID: CSR1000V          , VID: V00, SN: JAB1303001C\r\n\r\nNAME: \"module F0\", DESCR: \"Cisco CSR1000V Embedded Services Processor\"\r\nPID: CSR1000V          , VID:    , SN:            \r\n\r\n\r\n",
        "show run | in cisco": "username cisco secret 5 $1$zh1E$8GjiAf7YYDFPkLBYWMgpI0\r\n",
        "show ip int brief": "Interface              IP-Address      OK? Method Status                Protocol\r\nGigabitEthernet1      YES NVRAM  up                    up      \r\nGigabitEthernet2       unassigned      YES NVRAM  administratively down down    \r\nGigabitEthernet3       unassigned      YES NVRAM  administratively down down    \r\nGigabitEthernet4       unassigned      YES NVRAM  administratively down down    \r\n",
        "show version": "Cisco IOS XE Software, Version 03.12.00.S - Standard Support Release\r\nCisco IOS Software, CSR1000V Software (X86_64_LINUX_IOSD-UNIVERSALK9-M), Version 15.4(2)S, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)\r\nTechnical Support:\r\nCopyright (c) 1986-2014 by Cisco Systems, Inc.\r\nCompiled Wed 26-Mar-14 21:09 by mcpre\r\n\r\n\r\nCisco IOS-XE software, Copyright (c) 2005-2014 by cisco Systems, Inc.\r\nAll rights reserved.  Certain components of Cisco IOS-XE software are\r\nlicensed under the GNU General Public License (\"GPL\") Version 2.0.  The\r\nsoftware code licensed under GPL Version 2.0 is free software that comes\r\nwith ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.  You can redistribute and/or modify such\r\nGPL code under the terms of GPL Version 2.0.  For more details, see the\r\ndocumentation or \"License Notice\" file accompanying the IOS-XE software,\r\nor the applicable URL provided on the flyer accompanying the IOS-XE\r\nsoftware.\r\n\r\n\r\nROM: IOS-XE ROMMON\r\n\r\nR1 uptime is 1 minute\r\nUptime for this control processor is 3 minutes\r\nSystem returned to ROM by reload\r\nSystem image file is \"bootflash:packages.conf\"\r\nLast reload reason: <NULL>\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThis product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United\r\nStates and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and\r\nuse. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply\r\nthird-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption.\r\nImporters, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for\r\ncompliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you\r\nagree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable\r\nto comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately.\r\n\r\nA summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at:\r\n\r\n\r\nIf you require further assistance please contact us by sending email to\r\\r\n\r\nLicense Level: limited\r\nLicense Type: Default. No valid license found.\r\nNext reload license Level: limited\r\n\r\ncisco CSR1000V (VXE) processor with 804580K/6147K bytes of memory.\r\nProcessor board ID 9G0T83AE5II\r\n4 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces\r\n32768K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.\r\n2097152K bytes of physical memory.\r\n7774207K bytes of virtual hard disk at bootflash:.\r\n\r\nConfiguration register is 0x2102\r\n\r\n",
        "show clock": "*06:51:44.460 UTC Tue Mar 15 2016\r\n"

Parsed Results:

    "": {
        "show inventory": {
            "vid": [
            "pid": [
            "name": [
                "module R0",
                "module F0"
            "descr": [
                "Cisco CSR1000V Chassis",
                "Cisco CSR1000V Route Processor",
                "Cisco CSR1000V Embedded Services Processor"
            "sn": [
        "show version": {
            "running_image": [
            "hostname": [
            "config_register": [
            "uptime": [
                "37 minutes"
            "hardware": [
            "version": [
            "serial": [
        "show ip int brief": {
            "status": [
                "administratively down",
                "administratively down",
                "administratively down"
            "intf": [
            "ipaddr": [
            "proto": [
        "show clock": {
            "dayweek": [
            "year": [
            "month": [
            "time": [
            "timezone": [
            "day": [