1.6.0 (2017-03-08)


  • Remote execution on devices running Cumulus Linux is now officially supported.
  • A new configuration setting DEFAULT_ADMIN_STATUS has been added that defaults to PRODUCTION that is used to popoulate the adminStatus field on NetDevice objects that do not have that field populated.
  • CLI-tool gnng now uses PTable instead of the old indent function.
  • [Feature] #312: Added -a/–listen-address option to the XMLRPC Server Twisted’s default of has been preserved, but now if you supply -a to twistd you can have it listen on a different address.

Backwards-incompatible changes

  • PyCrypto has been replaced with the cryptography library.
  • The default NetDevices loader is now JSONLoader.
  • ACL support is now disabled by default. This means that WITH_ACLS = False is now the global default.
  • The conf directory at the repository root containing sample configurations has been renamed to configs to avoid confusiong with the conf library.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug in Cumulus Linux prompt patterns.
    • Also disabled execution of sudo vtysh by default on Cumulus. It will now be left up to operators to do this for themselves. Cumulus Linux.
  • Bugfixes for handling esoteric SSH server implementations.
  • Bugfixes for the TextFSM parsed results bucket.
  • Fixed a bug on Arista EOS devices that would sometimes cause the prompt to be included in the results from commands with no output.
  • [Bug] #313: Use pyparsing~=2.2.0 for compat w/ setuptools>=34.0.0 which was causing install to fail

1.5.10 (2016-04-18)

Bug Fixes

  • Extended prompt detection for IOS-like devices to include interstitial space (\s) or carriage return (\r) characters which is sometimes seen on Arista EOS devices, and would cause asynchronous execution to sometimes hang and result in a CommandTimeout error.
  • [Bug] #269: - Bugfix in bin/load_acl that prevents queue.complete() from being called when using the --no-db flag. Previously, an AttributeError attribute error was raised due to attempting to call complete on queue, which is set to None when passing --no-db.
  • [Bug] #266: - Cleaned up, removed hostname validation code
  • [Bug] #271: - Bugfix in ping() where a file descriptor wasn’t closed cleanly.
  • [Bug] #167: - Bugfix in bin/gnng that printed device names before any tables, resulting in potentially confusing results. Devices names are now printed with the corresponding table.
  • [Bug] #257: - Bugfix in bin/gnng that allows the --filter-on-type to function as expected.
  • Update documentation of gnng‘s -N/--nonprod flag.
  • [Bug] #89: - Bugfix in bin/gnng that allows gnng to fail gracefully when a device isn’t found.
  • Bugfix in bin/gnng --all that was causing many device vendors to be skipped entirely because the filter was too specific. This vendor filter has been removed and will now fallback to NetACLInfo() internal knowledge of supported platforms.

1.5.9 (2016-04-01)

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #258: - Bugfix in gorc where init commands would be sent before a prompt was even available on the remote device.
  • [Bug] #259: - Bugfix in pretty_time() where pytz was being referenced but not imported.
  • Extended prompt detection for IOS-like devices to include backspace characters (\b or \x08) which is sometimes seen on Cisco NX-OS devices, and would cause asynchronous execution to sometimes hang and result in a CommandTimeout error.
  • Improved the internal grouping logic for load_acl to be more permissive and if grouping fails it will just not group devices.
  • Fixed a bug that would prevent ACL staging from working when using default global settings.
  • Fixed bugs in the default global callables for get_current_oncall() and create_tm_ticket() that would prevent lod_acl from working. They now default to a disabled state that does not require customization just to utilize core load_acl functionality.
  • Updated the sample (configs/ to utilize the updated default callables.
  • Fixed a bug in default global callable for get_tftp_source() to properly perform lookup of VIPS
  • Fixed a bug in default global callable for stage_acls() to properly perform lookup of FIREWALL_DIR and TFTPROOT_DIR.

1.5.8 (2016-03-08)

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #252: - Bugfix in Commando related to the addition of TextFSM support for parsing unstructured CLI output.

1.5.7 (2016-02-18)


  • Added TextFSM parser to process unstructured CLI output.
  • Added a new prompt pattern to settings.CONTINUE_PROMPTS.
  • New continue prompts no longer need to be lower-cased.
  • Clarified the error text when an enable password is required but not provided when connecting to a device to make it a little more clear on how to proceed.

Bug Fixes

  • Bugfix in config_device causing an unhandled NameError.
  • [Bug] #250: Bugfix in bin/gnng that would cause a crash when using --sqldb or --csv output flags.

1.5.6 (2016-02-16)

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #153: Added -f/--force-cli to run_cmds to allow CLI execution on Juniper devices or any vendor platform where API support is enabled by default, fixing an underlying bug where CLI output would result in a crash.
  • [Bug] #193: Multiple commands can now be sent to Juniper devices w/ run_cmds.
  • Updated the Juniper CLI prompt pattern to work when a hostname isn’t set that would result in a CommandTimeout causing execution to fail.

1.5.5 (2016-02-04)

Bug Fixes

  • Bugfix in match() where keyword arguments were not properly filtering out devices that matched, sometimes resulting in a confusing union of matching devices.

1.5.4 (2016-01-29)

Bug Fixes

  • Bugfix when using match() to lookup devices by attribute/value, which will no longer result in a KeyError if any device is missing the desired attribute. This means that besides the minimum required attributes, NetDevice objects:
    • Are no longer required to have uniform attributes;
    • If an attribute does it exist it may have a value of None.

1.5.3 (2016-01-19)

New Features

  • Remote execution on Avocent console servers is now officially supported.
  • Example normalizer project added to the examples directory at the root of the repository.


  • An identity test for NetDevice objects has been added that can be used to check whether a devices is a Cisco Nexus. You may utilize it by calling is_cisco_nexus() on any NetDevice object.
  • Support for parsing interfaces on Cisco Nexus devices has been added.
  • A new global setting now defines what to do when a device object does not have a manufacturer defined (See: FALLBACK_MANUFACTURER) which defaults to the value UNKNOWN.
  • [Feature] #212: The twister module is now PEP8-compliant.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug where devices w/ mixed case names aren’t properly detected by Commando subclasses, since NetDevices normalizes the hostname on load.
  • [Bug] #236: Fixed a bug in changemgmt so that Trigger can use the current version of pytz.
  • [Bug] #238: Fixed a bug where sending an enable password to a device in a low latency environment (sub 1 ms) would result in the password being sent before the password prompt is displayed by the device.
  • [Bug] #241: Pin Twisted version to 15.4.0 so that py2.6 unit tests succeed. (Twisted 15.5.0 dropped support for Python 2.6)


New Features

  • NetDevices can now be properly subclassed and extended.
  • A disable paging command has been added for Citrix NetScaler devices.
  • String patterns used for detecting continue prompts is now globally configurable. (See CONTINUE_PROMPTS)

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #210: Addressed an issue where the buffer storing results from a command was not properly cleared when output continued to be sent after the prompt was displayed.
  • bin/run_cmds will now no longer hide errors when in --verbose mode.


New Features

  • The SSH authentication order is now a configurable setting. Public key is now the last method by default, but this is now easily configured in using the new SSH_AUTHENTICATION_ORDER setting.
  • The command_interval argument may now be passed to Commando and its subclasses. This allows you to specify a delay time in seconds to wait between sending commands to devices.


  • The example script the Trigger XMLRPC service has been improved to check the pid file and kill the existing twistd process by process id.



This release has introduced a change the Commando.parse() method that WILL require a minor change to any subclasses of Commando in your applications.

You will need to modify any custom from_{vendor} methods to take an optional commands argument. It is recommended that you add commands=None.

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #168: Fixed a bug in parse() where None was listed as the command in results causing result data to be lost.


New Features

  • Support for Pica8 routers and switches has been added!
  • [Feature] #135: Support for SSH public key authentication has been added!
  • An ehancement to select_next_device() to support skipping a NetDevice object for selection. If you overload this method in a subclass and want to skip the device, just return None!


New Features

  • Cisco ASA firewall now supported as a NetDevice. To begin using, ensure that FIREWALL is added in your as a supported cisco platform.o

    For it to enable properly, either the netdevice attribute enablePW needs to be set or the environment variable TRIGGER_ENABLEPW does. For now, I typically accomplish this via:

    >>> from trigger.conf import settings
    >>> from trigger import tacacsrc
    >>> settings.DEFAULT_REALM = 'MyRealm'
    >>> os.environ['TRIGGER_ENABLEPW'] = \
    >>> # Then the rest of my program

    ACL parsing for ASA is not implemented yet. NetACLInfo will generate the proper command, but will currently just add a message warning about future support


New Features

  • The .tacacsrc passphrase may now be stored in

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #144: Bugfix to detect missing or empty .tacacsrc keyfile.

Bug Fixes


Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #198: Fix hanging SSH connections to Cisco equipment due to client sending key exchange messages before remote device.


New Features

  • There is now a MongoDB loader for NetDevices.
  • [Feature] #140: There is a new ReactorlessCommando that allows for running multiple Commando instances in the same program under the same reactor by preventing the instances from doing it themselves.
  • [Feature] #182: bin/run_cmds will now log all activity to a logfile in /tmp
  • [Feature] #195: The acl library has been refactored to be more modular, breaking out vendor-specific grammar details into their own modules (ios, junos).


Bug Fixes

  • Make sure Juniper SRX devices are not categorized as being NetScreen devices
  • Bugfix in is_netscreen() to account for when .make is None
  • Minor bugfix in example script



  • Client connectings (such as those made by bin/load_acl, for example) will now raise an error when it is detected that an enable password is required and one is not provided.
  • [Feature] #181: Added SSH support for confirmation prompts
    • Added '[confirm]' as one of those prompts

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #172: Added ability to specify remote port for NetDevice objects
    • Add defaults in for SSH (SSH_PORT) and Telnet (SSH_TELNET) ports
    • Added documentation for SSH_PORT and TELNET_PORT in
  • [Bug] #180: Fix prompt patterns to include optional space and hard line-endings.
  • [Bug] #184: Pin pytz<=2014.2 to fix unit tests for time being (no pun intended).
  • Fix a minor bug causing bin/gong send the enable password when it shouldn’t.
  • Bugfix when passwords are passed in to make sure they are not unicode
  • bin/gong will now mark a device as enabled when auto-enable is detected.


New Features

  • Added a new bin/check_syntax tool to determine if an ACL passes a syntax check.
  • Acceptance tests can now be run standalone from within a clone of the Trigger repo.
  • [Feature] #142: bin/gong now enables on login if the enable password is provided by way of TRIGGER_ENABLEPW.


  • Improvements to user-experience within bin/acl
    • Help text greatly improved and expanded to be more helpful
      • -l and -m args now print a message when load queue is empty
      • Clarified help text for -a and -r args
    • It now requires users to explicitly ask for associations instead of it being default.
    • The wording on the status output has been improved for clarity and conciseness.
  • bin/load_acl will now validate .tacacsrc before work begins

Bug Fixes

  • Bugfix in Tacacsrc in which saving a password longer than a certain length could cause the encrypted password hash to contain newlines and therefore become unreadable.
  • [Bug] #163: Bugfix to copy startup commands from a device when creating a channel base, otherwise they will get consumed directly from the device, and connections after the first will not send any startup commands.
  • [Bug] #157: Bugfix in which TriggerTelnetClientFactory was missing the device attribute.
  • Fix a bug causing a crash when using gnng --dotty
  • Bugfix in pty_connect() to check for telnet fallback before attempting to telnet over pty that would cause a race condition resulting in a crash if neither telnet or SSH are available.
  • Catch invalid hostnames before they bleed through in stderr output when using ping
  • Bugfix to catch exceptions for bad netdevices data in bin/netdev.
  • Fix bugs in auto-enable and remote execution on certain devices
    • The correct delimiter is now mapped out by vendor/platform and attached to the NetDevice object at runtime.
    • Fixed a bug when executing commands remotely on NetScreen devices running ScreenOS that was causing them to be treated as Juniper routers/switches if the NetDevice attributes vendor=juniper and deviceType=netscreen.
  • [Bug] #151: Gong now uses chosen dev. from multiple when updating .tacacsrc.
  • [Bug] #90: Bugfix causing CSVLoader for netdevices to always succeed.



  • With this update, load_acl and acl no longer assume ACL and filter files begin with ‘acl.’. There are two options for updating your deployment to work with this code:
    1. Move files in settings.FIREWALL_DIR to files without the prepended ‘acl.’.
    2. Update and explicit ACL associations to include the prepended ‘acl.’ prepend_acl_dot was included in tools/ to help update explicit ACL associations.
  • Please note that either change above may have an impact on any non-trigger code.

New Features

  • ACL staging and finding tftp server moved to global settings
    • Allows for more site specific configuration
  • Load_acl support for new vendors
    • Force10
  • Enhancements to various ACL-related CLI tools
  • Moved staging and tftp server definitions to global settings to allow for site specific configuratons
  • Added tftpy package to trigger.packages.tftpy (MIT License)

Bug Fixes

  • Helpful netdev output when no devices found from search
  • [Bug] #100: Bug fix to add acl parser support for then accept;
  • [Bug] #132: Bugfix to handle inactive IP addresses in acl parser
  • [Bug] #133: Bugfix to added interface-specific support for Juniper filters


New Features

  • Support for new vendors and platforms!!
    • F5 BIG-IP application delivery controllers and server load-balancers
    • MRV LX-series console servers
  • New tool bin/run_cmds to run commands from the CLI!

Documentation Enhancements

  • API documentation fixes for trigger.contrib and some logging fixes

Bug Fixes

  • [Bug] #97: Bugfix that was causing NameError crash in bin/optimizer.
  • [Bug] #124: Bugfix in pretty_time where global timezone was hard-coded.
  • [Bug] #127: Bugfix to handle SSH protocol errors as if they are login failures instead of exiting with a cryptic error.
  • Bugfix in Tacacsrc when updating credentials for a user.
  • Tacacsrc will now truly enforce file permissions on the .tacacsrc when reading or writing the file


Trigger has a new home at!

New Features

  • Support for new vendors and platforms!!
    • Aruba wireless controllers
    • Cisco Nexus switches running NX-OS
    • Force10 routers and switches
  • Trigger now has a contrib package for optional extensions to core Trigger features.
    • A pluggable XMLRPC server that can be used as a long-running event loop.
    • Plugins for use w/ the XMLRPC server
  • Task queue now supports MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite. See the Database settings for more information!
    • There’s a new DATABASE_ENGINE that allows you to specify.
    • New tool to initialize your database w/ ease: init_task_db
  • All legacy unit tests have been fixed and Trigger is now fully integrated with Travis CI. All new functionality will be fully tested, and the existing unit testing suite will be continually improved.
  • You may now globally disable ACL support by toggling WITH_ACLS in
    • All execute() methods and Commando objects now support a with_acls argument to toggle this at runtime.
    • We also turned off ACLs for scripts that will never use them.
  • All execute() methods and Commando objects now support a force_cli argument to force commands to be sent as CLI commands and return human-readable output instead of structured output. Currently this is only relevant for Juniper devices, which return XML by default.
  • [Feature] #54: Commands allowed in .gorc can now be customized in (See GORC_ALLOWED_COMMANDS for more information)
  • Vastly expanded debug logging to include device hostname whenever possible. (You’re welcome!)

Bug fixes

  • Fix AttributeError when trying to connect interactively causing logins to fail.
  • [Bug] #74: - Bugfix in error-detection for NetScaler devices
  • Bugfix in host lookup bug in TriggerTelnet causing telnet channels to crash.
  • Fix typo that was causing Cisco ACL parsing to generate an unhandled exception.
  • Fix typos in tools/ that were causing it to crash.
  • [Bug] #119: - Get custom importlib from trigger.utils vs. native (for supporting Python < 2.6).
  • Replace all calls to os.getlogin() causing “Invalid argument” during unit tests where the value $USER is not set.
  • Various bugfixes and improvements to the handling of async SSH execution.
  • [Bug] #33: Console paging is now disabled by default for SSH Channels.
  • [Bug] #49: Bugfix in ACL parser to omit src/dst ports if range is 0-65535.
  • Bugfix in ACL parser showing useless error when address fails to parse
  • Bugfix in RangeList objects causing numeric collapsing/expanding to fail
  • Bugfix in Commando causing results from multiple Commando instances to collide with each other because they were inheriting an empty dictionary from the class object.

CLI Tools

  • bin/gnng - Added flags to include un-numbered (-u) or disabled (-d) interfaces.


  • Minimal changes to support writing Dell ACLs
  • Parser modifications to support negation of address objects in Junos ACLs. (Note that this relies on marking up ACLs with ‘trigger: make discard’ in term comments. This is undocmented functionality, currently used internally within AOL, and this code will only be used for Junos output.)
  • [Feature] #47: Add parsing of ranges for fragment-offset in Juniper ACLs


  • Refactored BounceWindow definition syntax to be truly usable by humans.


  • NetACLInfo and bin/gnng can now include disabled or un-addressed interfaces in their results.
  • Added pyparsing as a hard requirement until further notice so that NetACLInfo and bin/gnng will behave as expected without confusing developers and users alike.
  • You may now pass login credentials to Commando using the creds argument.


  • Prompt patterns are now bound to Vendor objects.



  • The new default operating mode for SSH channels is to use shell + pty emulation.
  • [Feature] #56: You may now optionally run “commit full” on Juniper devices. (See JUNIPER_FULL_COMMIT_FIELDS for more information)
  • Added support for sending an enable password to IOS-like devices when an enable prompt is detected.
    • This can either be provided in your netdevices metadata by populating the enablePW attribute, or by setting the environment variable TRIGGER_ENABLEPW to the value of the enable password.
  • Added error-detection for Brocade MLX routers.
  • Tacacrc() is now only called once when creds aren’t provided upon creation of new clients.


  • New utility module xmltodict for convert XML into dictionaries, primarily so such objects can be serialized into JSON.


  • General changes
    • New contrib package for optional extensions to core Trigger features, CommandoApplication being the first.
    • Remove legacy mtsync check from bin/fe.
    • Conditionally import MySQLdb so we can still do testing without it.
  • The following changes have been madw within parser, which provides Trigger’s support for parsing network access control lists (ACLs) and firewall policies:
    • [Bug] #72: Bugfix in TIP where an invalid network preifx (e.g. ‘’ would throw an AttributeError when checking the negated attribute and shadowing the original ValueError.
  • The following changes have been made within cmds, which provides an extensible, developer-friendly interface to writing command exeuction adapters:
    • Added with_errors argument to Commando constructor to toggle whether errors are raised as exceptions or returned as strings.
    • Allow timeout to be set as a class variable in Commando subclasses, preferrring timeout passed to constructor in Commando subclasses.
  • The following changes have been made within netdevices:
  • Refactor how we id Brocade switches for startup/commit (fix #75)
    • It’s assumed that all Brocade devices all act the same;
    • Except in the case of the VDX, which is treated specially.
  • Simplified how startup_commands are calculated
  • Disable SQLite loader if sqlite3 isn’t available for some reason.
  • Prompt patterns are now bound to Vendor objects object when NetDevices is populated.
  • Vendor objects now have a prompt_pattern attribute.
  • All prompt patterns are now defined in
    • Vendor-specific: PROMPT_PATTERNS
    • Fallback: DEFAULT_PROMPT_PAT
  • The following changes have been made within twister, which provides Trigger’s remote execution functionality:
    • Added CLI support for Palo Alto Networks firewalls!
    • SSH Async now enabled by default for Arista, Brocade.
    • [Feature] #54: Moved static definition of commands permitted to be executed when specified in a users’ ~/.gorc file into a new configuration setting GORC_ALLOWED_COMMANDS. The file location may now also be customized using GORC_FILE.
    • [Bug] #68: Fix host lookup bug in TriggerTelnet causing telnet channels to crash.
    • [Bug] #74: Fix error-detection for NetScaler devices.
    • Enhanced logging within twister to include the device name where applicable and useful (such as in SSH channel debugging).
    • All execute_ functions have been simplified to eliminate hard-coding of vendor checking wherever possible.
    • Beginnings of reworking of Generic vs. AsyncPTY SSH channels:
  • Documentation
    • Updated README to callout CSV support.
    • Updated README to reflect branching model.
    • Updated supported vendors, and no longer promising NETCONF support.



If you are upgrading from Trigger Before Upgrading from Trigger 1.2 or earlier, please heed these steps!

  • Add NETDEVICES_SOURCE = NETDEVICES_FILE to your This variable has replaced NETDEVICES_FILE.
  • Create your Bounce window mappings in and put it in /etc/trigger/ See configs/ in the source distribution for an example.
  • General changes

    • All references to psyco have been removed as it doesn’t support 64-bit and was causing problems in Python 2.7.3.
    • A new document, Adding New Vendors to Trigger, has been added to use as checklist for adding new vendor support to Trigger.
    • Added Allan Feid as contributor for his crazed ideas.
  • [Feature] #10: The following changes have been made within changemgmt, which provides Trigger’s support for bounce windows and timezones, to move the bounce window settings into configurable data vs. static in the module code.

    • This module has been convertd into a package.
    • The Bounce window API has been totally overhauled. Bounce windows are no longer hard-coded in changemgmt and are now configured using and specified using BOUNCE_FILE. The interface for creating BounceWindow objects was greatly simplified to improve readability and usage.
    • Added sample to configs/ in the Trigger source distribution.
    • New setting variables in
      • BOUNCE_FILE - The location of the bounce window mapping definitions. Defaults to /etc/trigger/
      • BOUNCE_DEFAULT_TZ - Default timezone for bounce windows. Defaults to 'US/Eastern'.
      • BOUNCE_DEFAULT_COLOR - The default bounce risk-level status color. Defaults to 'red'.
  • [Feature] #55: The following changes have been made within netdevices to make it easier to populate NetDevices from arbitrary sources by implementing pluggable loaders.

    • This module has been converted into a package.
    • All hard-coded metadata parsing functions and associated imports have been replaced with loader plugin classes. Filesystem loaders provided by default for JSON, XML, Sqlite, Rancid, and new: CSV!). The bare minimum config for CSV is a newline-separated CSV file populated with “hostname,vendor”
    • New configuration setting: NETDEVICES_LOADERS used to define a list of custom loader classes to try in turn. The first one to return data wins.
    • The configuration settings SUPPORTED_FORMATS and NETDEVICES_FORMAT have been deprecated.
    • The configuration setting NETDEVICES_SOURCE has replaced NETDEVICES_FILE.
    • The sample (found at configs/ in the source distribution) illustrates how one may use NETDEVICES_SOURCE and NETDEVICES_LOADERS to replace the deprecated settings NETDEVICES_FORMAT and NETDEVICES_FILE.
  • The following changes have been made within twister, which provides Trigger’s remote execution functionality:

    • [Feature] #22: Added Aruba wireless controller and Brocade ADX/VDX support for execute/pty in trigger.twister and any device that requires pty-req and shell without actualling using a pty. The channel class for this functionality is called TriggerSSHAsyncPtyChannel
    • Added a new requires_async_pty attribute to NetDevice objects to help identify devices that require such channels.
    • Added a force_cli flag to execute() to force CLI execution on Juniper devices instead of Junoscript.
    • The default client factory (TriggerClientFactory) now calls validate_credentials() instead of directly instantiating Tacacsrc anytime credentials are populated automatically, resulting in only a single call to Tacacsrc(), when creds aren’t provided.
    • Added error-detection for Brocade MLX devices.
  • The following changes have been made within cmds, which provides an extensible, developer-friendly interface to writing command exeuction adapters:

    • Added a force_cli flag to Commando constructor to force CLI execution on Juniper devices instead of Junoscript.
    • The timeout value may now be set as a class variable in Commando subclasses.
    • Commando now steps through commands as iterables instead of assuming they are lists. The iterable is also now explicitly cast to a list when we need it be one.
    • A minor bugfix in Commando causing results from multiple Commando instances to collide with each other because they were inheriting an empty results {} from the class object.
    • Commando now accepts creds as an optional argument. If not set, it will default to reading user credentials from .tacacsrc.
  • The following changes have been madw within parser, which provides Trigger’s support for parsing network access control lists (ACLs) and firewall policies.

    • [Feature] #12: Support has been added for parsing IPv6 addresses in Juniper firewall filters. (This does not include full IPv6 firewall support!)
    • [Bug] #26: The ACL parers was modified to support negation of addresses using the syntax {ip} except; in Juniper firewall filters. To facilitate this a custom IP address class was created: TIP (which is a subclass of IPy.IP).
    • The prefix on /32 and /128 IPs in Juniper ACLs is now always displayed.
  • The following changes have been made within tacacsrc, which provides functionality to cache and retrieve user credentials:

    • Added a new function validate_credentials() to (you guessed it!) validate credentials. It supports input in the form 2-tuples (username, password), 3-tuples (username, password, realm), and dictionaries of the same and returns a Credentials object.
  • The following changes have been made to Trigger’s command-line utilities:

    • [Feature] #60: bin/load_acl will now shutdown gracefully if initial the MySQL connection fails, using a try..except to display some information about the connection failure without a traceback. For other MySQL issues, we will leave as is (dumping the traceback) because they would represent coding or transient issues, and we should present as much information as we have.
    • [Feature] #20: bin/gnng (get_nets) In support of displaying Juniper ‘sp’ interfaces (which are un-numbered and were being skipped for this reason), we’ve added flags to include un-numbered (-u) or disabled (-d) interfaces for any device platform.


  • The commands required to commit/save the configuration on a device are now attached to NetDevice objects under the commit_commands attribute, to make it easier to execute these commands without having to determine them for yourself.
  • [Feature] #56: Added a way to optionally perform a commit full operation on Juniper devices by defining a dictionary of attributes and values for matching devices using JUNIPER_FULL_COMMIT_FIELDS. This modifies the commit_commands that are assigned when the NetDevice object is created.
  • [Bug] #33: Console paging is now disabled by default for async SSH channels.


  • [Feature] #47: Added parsing of ranges for fragment-offset statements in Juniper ACLs.
  • [Bug] #49: Changed ACL parser to omit src/dst ports if port range is 0-65535.
  • [Bug] #50: Fix typo that was causing Cisco parsing to generate an unhandled exception within NetACLInfo.
  • Minor bugfix when checking device names and printing a warning within Commando.
  • Updated docs to say we’re using a interactive Python interpreter and added OpenHatch profile to contact info.


  • [Feature] #16: Arista support was added to bin/load_acl
  • [Bug] #45: Added “SSH-1.99” as a valid SSHv2 version in test_ssh() to fix a bug in which devices presenting this banner were errantly falling back to telnet and causing weird behavior during interactive sessions.
  • [Feature] #46: Changed connect() to pass the vendor name to get_init_commands() so that it is more explicit when debugging.
  • [Feature] #29: Added an extensible event notification system
    • A new pluggable notification system has been added in notifications, which defaults to email notifications. New event handlers and event types can be easily added and specified with the configuration using NOTIFICATION_HANDLERS.
    • The following changes have been made to bin/load_acl:
    • In support of the new notification system, the following config settings have been added:
    • A new utility module has been added to import modules in importlib, and trigger.conf.import_path() was moved to import_module_from_path() to bring these import tools under one roof.


  • [Bug] #30: Bugfix in bin/acl where tftproot was hard-coded. It now reads from TFTPROOT_DIR.
  • [Feature] #37: Fixed misleading “make discard” output from bin/check_access, to use the Term.extra attribute to store a user-friendly comment to make it clear that the term’s action has been modified by the “make discard” keyword.
  • [Feature] #39: Call create_cm_ticket() in a try..commit block so it can’t crash bin/load_acl.
  • [Bug] #40: Update dot_gorc.example with [init_commands].
  • [Bug] #43: Bugfix in bin/acl to address incorrect exception reference from when exceptions were cleaned up in release 1.2.
  • Simplified basic Commando example in docs/index.rst.
  • Simplified activity output in Commando base to/from methods
  • Replaced all calls to time.sleep() with reactor.callLater() within twister support of the command_interval argument to Twisted state machine constructors.
  • Added a way to do SSH version detection within network
    • Enhanced test_tcp_port() to support optional check_result and expected_result arguments. If check_result is set, the first line of output is retreived from the connection and the starting characters must match expected_result.
    • Added a test_ssh() function to shortcut to check port 22 for a banner. Defaults to SSHv2.
    • SSH auto-detection in NetDevices objects now uses test_ssh().
  • Added a new crypt_md5() password-hashing function.
  • Added proper argument signature to get_netdevices.
  • Updated misnamed BadPolicerNameError to BadPolicerName
  • More and better documentation improvements, including new documentation for bin/acl_script.


  • [Feature] #23: Commando API overhauled and support added for RANCID
    • RANCID is now officially supported as a source for network device metadata. A new RANCID compatibility module has been added at rancid, with support for either single or multiple instance configurations. Multiple instances support can be toggled by setting RANCID_RECURSE_SUBDIRS to True.
    • The following changes have been made to netdevices:
      • NetDevices can now import from RANCID
      • A new Vendor type has been added to netdevices to store canonical vendor names as determined by the new setting VENDOR_MAP.
      • When NetDevice objects are created, the manufacturer attribute is mapped to a dynamic vendor attribute. This is intended to normalize the way that Trigger identifies vendors internally by a single lower-cased word.
      • All NetDevice objects now have a vendor attribute with their canonical Vendor object attached to it.
      • If the deviceType attribute is not set, it is determined automatically based on the vendor attribute. The default types for each vendor can be customized using DEFAULT_TYPES. If a vendor is not specified witihin DEFAULT_TYPES, FALLBACK_TYPE. will be used.
      • All logical comparisons that onced used the hard-coded value of the manufacturer attribute of a device now instead compare against the vendor attribute.
      • You may now tell NetDevices not to fetch acls from AclsDB when instantiate you may also do the same for individual NetDevice objects that you manually create
    • The following changes have been made to cmds:
      • The Commando class been completely redesigned to reduce boilerplate and simplify creation of new command adapters. This is leveraging the changes to NetDevice objects, where the vendor name can be expected to always be normalized to a single, lower-cased word. Defining commands to send to devices is as simple as definiing a to_{vendor} method, and parsing return results as simple as from_{vendor}.
      • All dynamic method lookups are using the normalized vendor name (e.g. cisco, juniper).
      • Base parse/generate lookup can be disabled explicitly in Commando subclasses or as an argument to the constructor.
      • NetACLInfo adapted to use Commando 2.0
    • The following changes have been made to Trigger’s exception handling
      • All exceptions moved to exceptions and given docstrings
      • trigger.acl.exceptions has been removed
      • All calls to exceptions updated to new-style exceptions
    • A new -v option has been added to bin/netdev to support vendor lookups
  • [Feature] #4: Support for SSH auto-detection and pty/async improvements:
    • The following changes have been made to twister:
      • Detection of remotely closed SSH connections so bin/gong users can be properly notified (e.g. ssh_exchange_identification errors)
      • New execute function to automatically choose the best execute_ function for a given NetDevice object, and is now attached to all NetDevice objects
      • execute_ioslike now determines whether to use SSH or Telnet automatically
      • All pty connection logic moved out of bin/gong into twister and is exposed as the connect function and also attached to all NetDevice objects
      • Interactive sessions may now be optionally logged to a file-like object by passing the log_to argument to the Interactor constructor
      • execute_junoscript now using execute_generic_ssh
      • Command interval added to Junoscript channels for consistency
      • Global NetDevices import removed from twister; moved to only occur when a telnet channel is created
    • The following changes have been made to netdevices:
    • The following changes have been made to settings:
    • Commando experimentally using the new NetDevice.execute() method
    • Two new helper functions added to cli: setup_tty_for_pty and update_password_and_reconnect, which modularize functionality that was in bin/gong that didn’t seem to fit anywhere else
  • [Feature] #21: The following changes have been made to support A10 hardware and to enhance handling of SSH channels:
    • Added a new generic SSH channel. The NetScreen and A10 channels are based from this. Further abstraction needed to roll NetScaler channel into this as well.
    • Added a new execute_generic_ssh factory function.
    • Refactored execute_netscreen to use execute_generic_ssh
    • Added a new execute_ioslike_ssh factory function utilizing the generic SSH channel to support SSH on IOS-like devices (Brocade, Cisco, Arista, A10, etc.). Works like a charm except for the Brocade VDX.
    • The Commando was updated to support A10, NetScreen. Brocade, Arista changed to use SSH vs. telnet.
    • All prompt-matching patterns moved to top of trigger.twister as constants
    • A10 added to IOSLIKE_VENDORS
  • [Feature] #24: bin/gong will now display the reason when it fails to connect to a device.


  • All changes from release (oh hey, duh) are officially part of this release
  • [Bug] #9: Fixed missing imports from bin/acl_script and removed a bunch of duplicated code already within the Trigger libs.
  • Added new keywords to
  • Some new utilities added to tools for merging new access into an existing ACL object
  • [Feature] #17: RangeList now sorts port range tuples when parsing access-lists.
  • [Bug] #8: get_device_password user-friendly message moved to pty_connect so it no longer bleeds into non-interactive usage.
  • [Bug] #15: output_ios updated to support optional acl_name argument for cases when you need to output a Term separately from an ACL object. check_access, bin/check_access, and bin/find_access also had to be updated to utilize this new argument.
  • [Bug] #19: check_access updated to support ‘complicated’ checks against Juniper firewall terms with a ‘port’ statement defined.

  • conf converted from a module to a package.
  • All global default settings are now baked into trigger.conf.settings
  • settings and autoacl may now be imported without the proper expected config files in place on disk. If the config files cannot be found, default versions of these objects will be returned.
  • All trigger modules can now be imported with default values (but don’t try instantiating any objects without following the install instructions!)
  • [Bug] #2: Fixed a bug in Tacacsrc where newly-created .tacacsrc files were world-readable. Correct 0600 perms are now enforced on every write().
  • [Feature] #3: Added the ability for :class:~trigger.twister.IoslikeSendExpect` to handle confirmation prompts (such as when a device asks you “are you sure? [y/N]:” by detecting common cases within the prompt-matching logic.
  • [Feature] #5: Added ability for gong –oob to lookup devices by partial hostnames using device_match().
  • [Bug] #6: The get_firewall_db_conn() function was moved out of and into Queue where it belongs.
  • [Feature] #7: Updated has_ioslike_error() to support Brocade VDX errors.

  • Added support for .gorc file to specify commands to run when using gong to login to a device. Unique commands cand be specified for each vendor.
  • Default realm for credentials within .tacacsrc can now be specified within settings.DEFAULT_REALM
  • The following changes have been made to trigger.tacacsrc:
    • New module-level update_credentials() function added to facilitate updating of cached user credentials by client applications (e.g. gong)
    • Renamed the exceptions within trigger.tacacsrc to be more human-readable
    • Tacacsrc._parse_old() completely redesigned with real error-handling for bad/missing passwords (GPG-parsing coming “Soon”)
    • New Tacacsrc.update_creds() method used to facilitate update of stored credentials within .tacacsrc
    • Realm is now stored as an attribute on Credentials objects to simplify loose-coupling of device/realm information while passing around credentials.
    • prompt_credentials() refactored to be more user-friendly.
    • Blank passwords can no longer be stored within .tacacsrc.
  • The following changes have been made to trigger.twister:
    • trigger.twister internals have been updated to support the passing of a list of initial_commands to execute on a device upon logging in.
    • TriggerClientFactory now reads the default realm from settings.DEFAULT_REALM when populating credentials.
    • TriggerClientFactory credentials detection improved
    • All referencing of username/password from credentials by index replaced with attributes.
    • Failed logins via telnet/ssh will now raise a LoginFailure exception that can be handled by client applications (such as gong)
  • bin/gong now detects login failures and prompts users to update their cached password.

  • Typo fix in sample configs/
  • Explicit imports from trigger.acl and a little docstring cleanup in bin/optimizer
  • trigger.acl.autoacl.autoacl() now takes optional explicit_acls as 2nd argument, a set of ACL names, so that we can reference explicit_acls within autoacl() implicit ACL logic, but we don’t have to rely on the internals.
  • trigger.acl.db.AclsDB.get_acl_set() modified to populate explicit_acls before implicit_acls. autoacl() is now called with these explicit_acls as the 2nd argument.
  • Sample in configs/ updated to support explicit_acls and a simple example of how it could be used.
  • Added support for Juniper “family inet” filters in trigger.acl.parser.
  • ACL objects now have a family attribute to support this when constructed or parsed using the .output_junos() method.

  • Minor bugfix in trigger.netdevices._parse_xml()

  • New nad tools for use in converting existing netdevices.xml implementations
  • Added sample netdevices.json in configs/netdevices.json
  • Added SQLite database schema for netdevices in configs/netdevices.sql

  • New NetDevices device metadata source file support for JSON, XML, or SQLite3
  • Companion changes made to configs/
  • trigger.netdevice.NetDevice objects can now be created on their own and have the minimum set of attributes defaulted to None upon instantiation

  • Public release!
  • Arista and Dell command execution and interactive login support in trigger.twister!

Legacy Versions

Trigger was renumbered to version 1.0 when it was publicly released on April 2, 2012. This legacy version history is incomplete, but is kept here for posterity.


  • Users credentials from tacacsrc.Tacacsrc are now stored as a namedtuple aptly named ‘Credentials’

1.6.0 - 2011-10-26

  • Fixed missing acl.parse import in bin/find_access
  • More documentation cleanup!
  • The following changes have been made to trigger.cmds.Commando:
    • Added parse/generate methods for Citrix NetScaler devices
    • Renamed to to avoid confusing inside of Commando._add_worker()
    • Added distinct parse/generate methods for each supported vendor type (new: Brocade, Foundry, Citrix)
    • Generate methods are no longer called each time _setup_callback() is called; they are now called once an entry is popped from the jobs queue.
    • All default parse/generate methods now reference base methods to follow DRY in this base class.
  • Fixed incorrect IPy.IP import in bin/acl_script
  • Trigger.twister.pty_connect will only prompt for distinct passwors on firewalls
  • Added _cleanup() method to acl.parser.RangeList objects to allow for addition of lists of mixed lists/tuples/digits and still account for more complex types such as Protocol objects
  • Performance tweak to Rangelist._expand() method for calculating ranges.
  • Added parsing support for remark statements in IOS numbered ACLs

1.5.9 - 2011-08-17

  • Tons and tons of documentation added into the docs folder including usage, API, and setup/install documentation.
  • Tons of code docstrings added or clarified across the entire package.
  • Added install_requires to setup() in; removed bdist_hcm install command.
  • The following changes have been made to trigger.twister:
    • Massive, massive refactoring.
    • New base class for SSH channels.
    • New NetScaler SSH channel. (Full NetScaler support!)
    • New execute_netscaler() factory function.
    • execute_netscreenlike() renamed to execute_netscreen().
    • Every class method now has a docstring.
    • Many, many things moved around and organized.
  • Added doctsrings to trigger.netdevices.NetDevice class methods
  • The following CLI scripts have been removed from Trigger packaging to an internal repo & removed from (These may be added back after further internal code review.)
    • bin/acl_mass_delete
    • bin/acl_mass_insert
    • bin/fang
    • bin/get_session
    • bin/merge_acls
  • The following CLI scripts have had their documentation/attributions updated:
    • bin/fe
    • bin/gong
    • bin/load_acl
  • Restructuring within bin/load_acl to properly abstract fetching of on-call engineer data and CM ticket creation into
  • External release sanitization:
    • Template for updated and internal references removed.
    • Sanitized and added generic usage examples.
  • The following items have been moved from bin/load_acl into trigger.utils.cli:
    • NullDevice, print_severed_head, min_sec, pretty_time.
  • Fixed a bug in trigger.utils.rcs.RCS that would cause RCS log printing to fail.
  • Added REDIS_PORT, REDIS_DB to and tweaked trigger.acl.db to support it.
  • Fixed bug in bin/netdev causing a false positive against search options.
  • trigger.netscreen: Tweak EBNF slightly to parse policies for ScreenOS 6.x.

1.5.8 - 20011-06-08

  • trigger.acl.parser fully supports Brocade ACLs now, including the ability to strip comments and properly include the “ip rebind-receive-acl” or “ip rebind-acl” commands.
  • trigger.acl.Term objects have a new output_ios_brocade() method to support Brocade-special ACLs
  • bin/load_acl will automatically strip comments from Brocade ACLs

1.5.7 - 2011-06-01

  • Where possible replaced ElementTree with cElementTree for faster XML parsing
  • New NetDevices.match() method allows for case-insensitive queries for devices.
  • now accepts optional field argument but defaults to nodeName.
  • New trigger.acl.ACL.strip_comments() method ... strips... comments... from ACL object.
  • bin/fang:
    • Now accepts hostnames as arguments
    • Now really properly parses hops on Brocade devices.
  • bin/load_acl:
    • Now fully supports Brocade devices.
    • Strips comments from Brocade ACLs prior to staging and load.
    • Now displays temporary log file location to user.
  • Removed jobi, orb, nms modules from Trigger; replaced with python-aol versions.

1.5.6 - 2011-05-24

  • bin/acl: corrected excpetion catching, changes option help text and made -a and -r append
  • bin/gnng, bin/netdev: Added -N flag to toggle production_only flag to NetDevices
  • trigger.cmds/trigger.twister: Added support for ‘BROCADE’ vendor (it’s ioslike!)
  • trigger.cmds.Commando: All generate_* methods are now passed a device object as the first argument to allow for better dynamic handling of commands to execute
  • bin/fang: Can now properly parse hops on Brocade devices.

1.5.5 - 2011-04-27

  • bin/acl: Will now tell you when something isn’t found
  • bin/acl: Added -q flag to silence messages if needed
  • get_terminal_width() moved to trigger.utils.cli
  • trigger.tacacsrc: Fixed bogus AssertionError for bad .tacacsrc file. Clarified error.
  • trigger.twister: Fixed bug in Dell password prompt matching in execute_ioslike()
  • bin/fang: Increased default timeout to 30 seconds when collecting devices.
  • trigger.cmds.Commando:
    • Replaced all ‘__foo()’ with ‘_foo()’
    • Removed Commando constructor args that are not used at this time
    • Added production_only flag to Commando constructor

1.5.4 - 2011-03-09

  • Fixed a bug in trigger.cmds.Commando that would prevent reactor loop from continuing after an exception was thrown.
  • trigger.cmds.Commando now has configurable timeout value (defaults to 30 seconds)
  • now looks at acl comments for trigger: make discard
  • fixed a bug with gong connecting to devices’ oob

1.5.3 - 2011-01-12

  • Fixed a bug in trigger.cmds.NetACLInfo where verbosity was not correctly toggled.
  • gong (go) will now connect to non-prod devices and throw a warning to the user
  • gong can connect to a device through oob by passing the -o or –oob option.
  • acl will make any device name lower case before associating an acl with it.

1.5.2 - 2010-11-03

  • bin/find_access: Added -D and -S flags to exclude src/dst of ‘any’ from search results. Useful for when you need to report on inclusive networks but not quite as inclusive as
  • Fixed a bug in acls.db where a device without an explicit association would return None and throw a ValueError that would halt NetDevices construction.
  • Added __hash__() to NetDevice objects so they can be serialized (pickled)
  • Fixed a bug in explicit ACL associations that would sometimes return incorrect results
  • trigger.cmds.NetACLInfo now has a verbosity toggle (defaults to quiet)
  • Caught an exception thrown in NetACLInfo for some Cisco devices

1.5.1 - 2010-09-08

  • trigger.conf: import_path() can now be re-used by other modules to load modules from file paths without needing to modify sys.path.
  • autoacl can now be loaded from a location specified in settings.AUTOACL_FILE allowing us to keep the ever-changing business rules for acl/device mappings out of the Trigger packaging.
  • netdevices:
    • Slight optimization to NetDevice attribute population
    • Added new fields to NetDevice.dump() output
    • All incoming fields from netdevices.xml now normalized
  • bin/netdev:
    • added search option for Owning Team (-o)
    • search opt for OnCall Team moved to -O
    • search opt for Owning Org (cost center) moved to -C
    • added search option for Budget Name (-B)
    • refactored search argument parsing code
  • bin/fang:
    • will now not display information for ACLs found in settings.IGNORED_ACLS

1.5.0r2 - 2010-08-16

  • Minor fix to warnings/shebang for bin/scripts

1.5.0 - 2010-08-04

  • acl.db: renamed ExplicitACL to AclsDB, all references adjusted
  • process_bulk_loads() moved to
  • get_bulk_acls() moved to trigger.acl.tdb
  • get_all_acls(), get_netdevices(), populate_bulk_acls() added to trigger.acl.db
  • load_acl: now imports bulk_acl functions from
  • load_acl: now uses trigger.acl.queue API vs. direct db queries
  • load_acl: –bouncy now disables bulk acl thresholding
  • load_acl: now displays CM ticket # upon successful completion
  • process_bulk_loads() now uses device.bulk_acl associations, better performance
  • device_match() now sorts and provides correct choices
  • Juniper filter-chain support added to trigger.cmds.NetACLInfo
  • gnng updated to use NetACLinfo
  • Added proceed() utility function trigger.utils.cli
  • Several ACL manipulation functions added to
    • get_comment_matches() - returns ACL terms comments matching a pattern
    • update_expirations() - updates expiration date for listed ACL terms
    • write_tmpacl() - writes an ACL object to a tempfile
    • diff_files() - returns a diff of two files
    • worklog() - inserts a diff of ACL changes into the ACL worklog
  • fang: patched to support Juniper filter-lists

1.4.9r2 - 2010-04-27

  • find_access: Corrected missing import for IPy
  • Corrected bug with incorrect username association to .tacacsrc in sudo/su use-cases (such as with cron) where login uid differs from current uid.

1.4.9 - 2010-04-26

  • You may now use gong (go) to connect to Dell devices (telnet only).
  • Completely overhauled to support auto-detection of missing .tacacsrc
  • Heavily documented all changes to
  • Twister now imports from tacacsrc for device password fetching
  • now imports from tacacsrc for .tacacsrc generation
  • load_acl now uses get_firewall_db_conn from global settings
  • Added new search() method to NetDevices to search on name matches
  • Added a new device_match() function to netdevices for use with gong
  • gong now uses device_match() to present choices to users
  • netdev now uses device_match() to present choices to users

1.4.8 - 2010-04-16

  • acls.db replaced with redis key/value store found at trigger.acl.db
  • trigger.acl converted to package
  • all former trigger.acl functionality under trigger.acl.parser
  • moved to trigger.acl.autoacls
  • moved to
  • now using trigger.acl.db instead of flat files
  • added trigger.netdevices.NetDevices.all() as shortcut to itervalues()
  • You may now use gong (go) to connect to non-TACACS devices, such as OOB or unsupported devices using password authentication.
  • The ACL parser has been reorganized slightly to make future modifications more streamlined.
  • Load_acl now logs all activity to a location specified in Trigger config file.
  • Added new ‘trigger.utils’ package to contain useful modules/operations
  • ‘acl’ command moved into Trigger package
  • ‘netdev’ command moved into Trigger package
  • Merged trigger.commandscheduler into trigger.nms
  • Basic provided in conf directory in source dist.